Citations for Publication

[1] National Research Council, Reforming Juvenile Justice: A Developmental Approach, Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2013.

[2] Mendel, R. No Place for Kids: The Case for Reducing Juvenile Incarceration, Baltimore, MD: The Annie E Casey Foundation, 2011; Justice Policy Institute, Sticker Shock: Calculating the Full Price Tag for Youth Incarceration, Washington, D.C., 2014.

[3] Mulvey, E., Highlights From Pathways to Desistance: A Longitudinal Study of Serious Adolescent Offenders, OJJDP Juvenile Justice Fact Sheet, March 2011, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 2011.

[4] Justice for Families, Families Unlocking Futures: Solutions to the Crisis in Juvenile Justice, September 2012.

[5] Aizer, A. and Doyle, J., Juvenile Incarceration, Human Capital and Future Crime: Evidence from Randomly-Assigned Judges, NBER Working Paper, 19102, 2013. ; American Youth Policy Forum, Supporting Opportunity Youth on Postsecondary Pathways: Lessons from Two States, 2015; Sweeten, G., Who Will Graduate? Disruption of High School Education by Arrest and Court InvolvementJustice Quarterly 23, 462-480, 2006

[6] Aizer, A. and Doyle, J., Juvenile Incarceration, Human Capital and Future Crime: Evidence from Randomly-Assigned Judges, NBER Working Paper, 19102, 2013.

[7] Mulvey, E., Highlights From Pathways to Desistance: A Longitudinal Study of Serious Adolescent Offenders, OJJDP Juvenile Justice Fact Sheet, March 2011, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 2011.

[8] Justice Policy Institute, Sticker Shock: Calculating the Full Price Tag for Youth Incarceration, Washington, D.C., 2014.

[9] Butts, J., Violent Youth Crime in U.S. Falls to New 32-Year Low, New York: John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Research and Evaluation Center, October 2013.

[10] Justice Policy Institute, Sticker Shock: Calculating the Full Price Tag for Youth Incarceration, Washington, D.C., 2014.

[11] Sered, D. Young Men of Color and the Other Side of Harm: Addressing Disparities in Our Response to Violence, New York, NY: Vera Institute of Justice, 2014.

[12] Justice Policy Institute, U.S. Youth Incarceration in an International Perspective Fact Sheet, December 2014.

[13] United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989.

[14] Butts, J., Bazemore, G., & Saa Meroe, A., Positive Youth Justice–Framing Justice Interventions Using the Concepts of Positive Youth Development, Washington, DC: Coalition for Juvenile Justice, 2010.

[15] Mulvey, E., Highlights From Pathways to Desistance: A Longitudinal Study of Serious Adolescent Offenders, OJJDP Juvenile Justice Fact Sheet, March 2011, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 2011.

[16] Rovner, J., Disproportionate Minority Contact in the Juvenile Justice System, Washington, D.C.: The Sentencing Project, 2014.

[17] Justice for Families, Families Unlocking Futures: Solutions to the Crisis in Juvenile Justice, September 2012.

[18] Arya, N., FAMILY Comes First: A Workbook to Transform the Justice System by Partnering with Families, Washington, D.C.: Campaign for Youth Justice, 2013; Davis, A., Irvine, A., Ziedenberg, J., Engaging Juvenile Justice System-Involved Families, National Council on Crime and Delinquency, 2014.

[19] National Juvenile Justice Network, A House Divided No More: Common Cause for Juvenile Justice Advocates, Victim Advocates, and Communities, 2014; Justice Policy Institute, Healing Invisible Wounds: Why Investing in Trauma-Informed Care for Children Makes Sense, 2010; National Child Traumatic Stress Network, Justice System Consortium, Helping Traumatized Children: Tips for Judges. Los Angeles, CA & Durham, NC: National Center for Child Traumatic Stress, 2009.

[20] Center for Juvenile Justice Reform and Robert F. Kennedy Children’s Action Corps, Addressing the Needs of Multi-System Youth: Strengthening the Connection between Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice, 2013.

[21] Shufelt, J. & Cocozza, J., Youth with Mental Health Disorders in the Juvenile Justice System: Results from a Multi-State, Multi-System Prevalence Study, Delmar, NY: National Center for Mental Health and Juvenile Justice, 2006; Mental Health and Juvenile Justice Collaborative for Change, Better Solutions for Youth with Mental Health Needs in the Juvenile Justice System, Delmar, NY: National Center for Mental Health and Juvenile Justice, 2014.

[22] American Psychological Association, Statement on Reforming the Juvenile Justice System to Improve Children’s Lives and Public Safety, U.S. House Committee on Education and Labor in Support of JJDPA, 2010.

[23] In re Gault, 387 U.S. 1 (1967)

[24] Campaign for Youth Justice, State Trends Legislative Victories from 2011-2013 Removing Youth from the Adult Criminal Justice System, 2013; and State Trends: Updates from the 2013-2014 Legislative Session, 2014.

[25] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Effects on Violence of Laws and Policies Facilitating the Transfer of Youth from the Juvenile to the Adult Justice System: A Report on Recommendations of the Task Force on Community Preventive Services, 2007. MMWR 2007; 56 (No. RR-9).

[26] American Bar Association, National Inventory of Collateral Consequences of Conviction, Accessed June 25, 2015.

[27] Fazal, S., Safely Home. Youth Advocate Programs, Inc., 2013.

[28] Lipsey, M., Howell, J., Kelly, M., Chapman, G., Carver, D., Improving the Effectiveness of Juvenile Justice Programs: A New Perspective on Evidence-Based Practice, Georgetown University Center for Juvenile Justice Reform, 2011.

[29] Fazal, S., Safely Home. Youth Advocate Programs, Inc., 2013.

[30] Mendel, R. No Place for Kids: The Case for Reducing Juvenile Incarceration, Baltimore, MD: The Annie E Casey Foundation, 2011; Holman, B. and Ziedenberg, J. The Dangers of Detention: The Impact of Incarcerating Youth in Detention and Other Secure Facilities, Washington, D.C.: Justice Policy Institute, 2010.

[31] Sickmund, M, Sladky, T. Kang, W. & Puzzanchera, C., Easy Access to the Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement: 1997-2013, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

[32] Justice Policy Institute, Sticker Shock: Calculating the Full Price Tag for Youth Incarceration, Washington, D.C., 2014.

[33] United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989; Feierman, J., Mordecai, K., Schwartz, R., Ten Strategies to Reduce Juvenile Length of Stay, Philadelphia, PA, 2015; Ed Latessa…

[34] Mulvey, E., Highlights From Pathways to Desistance: A Longitudinal Study of Serious Adolescent Offenders, OJJDP Juvenile Justice Fact Sheet, March 2011, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 2011; Feierman, J., Mordecai, K., Schwartz, R., Ten Strategies to Reduce Juvenile Length of Stay, Philadelphia, PA, 2015.

[35] Chung, H., Schubert, C., Mulvey, E., An Empirical Portrait of Community Reentry Among Serious Juvenile Offenders in Two Metropolitan Cities, Criminal Justice and Behavior, 34 (11), 1402-1426, 2007.

[36] Seigle, E., Walsh, N., & Weber, J., Core Principles for Reducing Recidivism and Improving Other Outcomes for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System, New York: Council of State Governments Justice Center, 2014.

[37] These categories were adapted from Badeau, S., Philanthropic Engagement with Community Youth Violence Prevention Initiatives, Making the Link, Issue 2. Washington, D.C.: Grantmakers for Children, Youth and Families, 2012.

[38] Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative, Baltimore, MD: Annie E. Casey Foundation.

[39] Models for Change: Systems Reform in Juvenile Justice, Chicago, IL: John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.

[40] Positive Youth Justice Initiative, Sacramento, CA: The Sierra Health Foundation.

[41] Langford, B., Badeau, S., Legters, L. (2015). Investing to Improve the Well-Being of Vulnerable Youth and Young Adults: Recommendations for Policy and Practice. Washington, DC: Youth Transition Funders Group.

 

CITATIONS FOR INFOGRAPHIC

Prevent Youth from Entering the Justice System

70% of students arrested or referred to police at school are Black or Latino.

Dignity in Schools, Campaign Fact Sheet: What is School Pushout?, 2015.

50%+ of school-based arrests are for “disturbance of the peace,” or “disruptive conduct.” 43% of serious disciplinary actions are for insubordination.

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 1999–2000, 2003–04, 2005–06, and 2007–08 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2000, 2004, 2006 and 2008; Advancement Project, Education on Lockdown: The Schoolhouse to Jailhouse Track, Washington, D.C., 2005.

75% of the youth are incarcerated on charges that pose little to no threat to public safety such as probation violations, status offenses (e.g. running away, skipping school), property public order and drug offenses.

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement, Washington, D.C., 2015.

30% of justice-involved youth have a diagnosed learning disability. It is estimated that between 28 percent and 43 percent of detained and incarcerated youthful offenders have an identified special education disability, a majority of these being learning disabilities. Despite reform efforts, the number of youth with these disabilities in the juvenile courts does not seem to have varied significantly over the past two decades. In the 1980s a survey of state juvenile correctional facility directors reported a 28 percent rate while the most recent survey of state directors reported a 33 percent rate.

Mallet, C., Seven Things Juvenile Courts Should Know About Learning Disabilities, National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges, 2010.

67% of justice-involved youth have been in the child welfare system.

Halemba, G., Siegel, G., Doorways to Delinquency: Multi-System Involvement of Delinquent Youth in King County (Seattle, WA), National Center for Juvenile Justice, 2011; Center for Juvenile Justice Reform and Robert F. Kennedy Children’s Action Corps. Addressing the Needs of Multi-System Youth: Strengthening the Connection between Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice, 2012.

65% of justice-involved youth have at least one mental health diagnosis.

Shufelt, J.S. & Cocozza, J.C. Youth with Mental Health Disorders in the Juvenile Justice System: Results from a Multi-State, Multi-System Prevalence Study. Delmar, NY: National Center for Mental Health and Juvenile Justice, 2006; Better Solutions for Youth with Mental Health Needs in the Juvenile Justice System by the Mental Health and Juvenile Justice Collaborative for Change: A Training, Technical Assistance and Education Center and a member of the Models for Change Resource Center Partnership, 2014.

[1] Mendel, R. No Place for Kids: The Case for Reducing Juvenile Incarceration, Baltimore, MD: The Annie E Casey Foundation, 2011.

Dismantle Policies and Practices

Dangerous: Youth in confinement, particularly in adult jails and prisons, are at greater risk of physical violence, sexual assault, solitary confinement and suicide.
Mendel, R. No Place for Kids: The Case for Reducing Juvenile Incarceration, Baltimore, MD: The Annie E Casey Foundation, 2011.

Expensive: 33 states spend $100,000 or more every year to incarcerate a single young person.

Justice Policy Institute, Sticker Shock: Calculating the Full Price Tag for Youth Incarceration, Washington, D.C., 2014.

Ineffective: 75% of youth released from juvenile correctional facilities are rearrested within 3 years.

Mendel, R. No Place for Kids: The Case for Reducing Juvenile Incarceration, Baltimore, MD: The Annie E Casey Foundation, 2011.

Lifelong Consequences: Justice-involved youth have a greater risk of homelessness, low educational attainment, poor health, unemployment, and incarceration.

Homelessness: National Center for Homeless Education, Best Practices in Interagency Collaboration: Youth and Homelessness Briefing Paper, Greensboro, NC, 2011; Toro, P., Dworsky, A., & Fowler, P. (2007). Homeless youth in the United States: Recent research findings and intervention approaches. Paper presented at the 2007 National Symposium on Homelessness Research. Retrieved October 15, 2015 from the Office of Human Services Policy website

Low educational attainment: Aizer, A. and Doyle, J., Juvenile Incarceration, Human Capital and Future Crime: Evidence from Randomly-Assigned Judges, NBER Working Paper, 19102, 2013. ; American Youth Policy Forum, Supporting Opportunity Youth on Postsecondary Pathways: Lessons from Two States, 2015; Sweeten, G., Who Will Graduate? Disruption of High School Education by Arrest and Court InvolvementJustice Quarterly 23, 462-480, 2006

Poor health: American Academy of Pediatrics. Health Care for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System, Pediatrics, 2011; 128(6): 1219-1235.

Unemployment: Shah, R., Fine, L., Failed Policies, Forfeited Futures: A National Scorecard on Juvenile Records, Philadelphia, PA: Juvenile Law Center, 2015; Bradford, S., Working for a Better Future: How expanding employment opportunities for D.C’s youth creates public safety benefits for all residents, Washington, D.C.: Justice Policy Institute, 2012.

Incarceration as adults: Aizer, A. and Doyle, J., Juvenile Incarceration, Human Capital and Future Crime: Evidence from Randomly-Assigned Judges, NBER Working Paper, 19102, 2013.

 

Return to Blueprint Homepage